Terraform Earth

Category Archive

The following is a list of all entries from the Uncategorized category.

Biochar: Cheap Fuel Plus CO2 Sequestering

I found a clip that shows the essential process in making biochar, a cheap way to generate heat while sequestering some of the carbon in agricultural waste.

It would be terrific if agriculture became carbon negative while still generating revenue. And biochar puts this within reach of not just wealthier nations, but developing countries as well.

The biochar process involves heating organic waste products, like manure or plant clippings, in a low oxygen container to a high enough temperature that the combustible molecules break their chemical bonds, releasing gasses that can be burned as fuel. The remaining biochar, which is essentially charcoal, can then be used as fertilizer. This increases soil fertility while trapping carbon in the ground for a net reduction of CO2 in the atmosphere.

By the way, those of you inspired to experiment with burying regular charcoal as a fertilizer and carbon sink, please use the charcoals that don’t have the easy start additives.

Wikipedia has a great article on the process.

Posted via web from Dan’s EcoGeekery

How du get ze Humans du taek ze stairz

Green Roofs for Container Housing

I have been contemplating a very sustainable desert community. They could save lots of money and time if they built dwellings out of used cargo shipping containers. But how to keep them cool in the desert? Green Roofs.

The shipping containers would be cheap. They could be cleaned and refurbished to become modular housing components. And by putting a green roof on top, they could keep the dwelling in the cool shade. The containers would have the structural strength to support a green roof since they were designed to be stacked like blocks.

Building soil filled planter boxes on the sides would provide further shade, some insulation, and even thermal mass effects. That last aspect is where the sheer volume of dirt would keep the dwelling cooler during the hottest part of the day and warmer at night.

Posted via web from Dan’s EcoGeekery

Coal on the Decline

Articles out of Florida say that the next planned coal fired power plant has been cancelled. This markes a milestone of sorts, since it was partially an economic decision. The Seminole Electric Cooperative has cited…

Uncertainty – there might be new fees on carbon intensive fuels or coal in particular
Lower cost Natural Gas – the cleaner fuel seems more abundant with less risk of carbon tariffs
Energy efficiency measures (from a scaled back economy and from Federal incentives) reduce demand
Alerternative Power, especially solar, is cheaper and in greater demand from power consumers

To my thinking, the cost of coal must now suffer with the additional cost of uncertainty in regulation when competing with the other energy sources.

Most alternative energies don’t face the kind of minimum start-up size issues that coal and gas face. Installing a ten megawatt facility of wind or solar one megawatt at a time isn’t much more expensive than installing it all at once. This allows a utility more financial flexibility in a fiscal landscape with less freely flowing capital. There might even be additional savings from falling wind & solar prices during an extended project. And there are no fuel costs with wind or solar, which brings in a owning vs. renting calculation.

It is analogous to weighing whether one should rent an entire home, or, for just a little bit more per room, buy that home one room at a time as your budget allows, while being able to fully utilize each of the rooms one has purchased. What resident wouldn’t prefer the second option? I think the owning vs. renting model will be a major motivator for the more fiscally astute companies and landowners to chose wind & solar.

Posted via web from Dan’s EcoGeekery

Governor Schwarzenegger Signed Two Solar Bills

Our solar-advocating governor has signed in two bills that will add monetary incentives for installing more solar. AB 920 will mean that solar on your home won't just reduce your electric bill; you might actually get paid by the utility for producing more than you consume. And SB 32 means that the utilities have to buy energy at above-wholesale prices from producers between 1.5 and 3 megawatts. So we might see more big installations on large roofs and large parking lots.

LA Times

Posted via email from Dan’s EcoGeekery

Industries of Inefficiency?

Efficiency Effects

Perhaps, in a small way, efficiency has contributed to our recent economic downturn.

There has been a kind of split personality amongst managers and executives for quite some time. They have been of two minds regarding their internal operations and their external financial entanglements. Borrowing Rushkoff's paradigm of the corporation as fundamentally a manager of debt, the decisions made have been less than ideal because of the different standards used when managing 'external' vs. 'internal' debt.

By internal, I mean that when a company purchases equipment, it doesn't expect to instantly regain the value of that equipment at the flip of the 'on' switch. They plan the purchase with a Return On Investment (ROI) scheme. They predict how much the equipment will cost to purchase and to operate, balance that against how much revenue they expect to generate, and decide if the purchase is profitable enough.

And by external, I mean that the company will sell stocks, take loans from banks, purchase insurance, and make other financial arrangements with third parties to collect capital for operations and fiscal security. So Rushkoff's label of 'managers of debt' seems apt. But they are inconsistent in their management.

Per Amory Lovins, internal equipment is often purchased with very short ROIs requirements while the external fiscal deals can have an order of magnitude longer ROIs. That effectively makes the equipment look like a worse investment when compared to investing in stocks, for example. Which is not consistent with trying to maximize the profitability of the company, since both the external fiscal dealing and the internal operations contribute to the bottom line.

This bias did not arise from intentional neglect or outright stupidity on the part of executives and managers, but rather from a cultural bias amongst the major fiscal decision makers. The same way scientist and engineers as a community look down on mixing with end users, the executives and managers have difficulty seeing a more efficient tool as having the same capability for generating profits that a bit of market speculation might. So they skew their company's spending towards external financial ventures rather than internal investments that might pay off quicker with less risk.

Right now the smart investment money prefers US government bonds over stocks, since stocks are riskier. Which makes internal investments into efficiency much more attractive. The confidence is high, the returns are rapid, and the external fiscal environment favors trimming down.

Some major companies have been proving the soundness of these investments. Lovins' recent debate with an economist (with lots of actual numbers from actual firms) cited profitable efficiencies found at Dow, BP, IBM, GE and Dupont. They are teaching their competitors that going efficient is the best strategy for the near future. But someone is probably losing revenue somewhere along the line. At least part of the billions of dollars of profits he cited must have been a loss to some part of the economy.

An Industry of Inefficiency?

As glad as I am to hear of such wonderful efficiencies and reductions in the carbon footprints of major corporations, I have to consider further: Who is being hurt by this? With less electricity and water being consumed, with less materials entering the waste stream, there must be some companies that are getting less business. Could these companies be said to be part of an industry of inefficiency?

Here in California, we have been proven wise to have been tough on our utilities in the 1970's. We forced them, kicking and screaming, to work under rules that rewarded them for selling less energy to their customers. The power companies of other states work under the old model where they get more money for selling more power, and polluting more along the way. It is not very surprising that PG&E has become the greenest utility in the country, even to the point of lobbying for more efficiency and clean energy mandates.

Relative to PG&E, utilities that rely on coal, for example, seem to benefit when corporations and individual consumers are wasteful. They get more revenue from a wasteful, inefficient customer base than from an efficient one. So they have no interest in implementing new efficiency standards. In fact, their obligation to their shareholders that they maximize profits would seem to require them to discourage efficiency legislation and practices.

I am not saying that there are people who get up for work looking forward to creating some more waste for the sake of sheer malevolence. I am saying that there will be some who will rightly worry when the public thinking of the day turns towards efficiency. The insecurity they feel about their investments, their workplace, or their job will be quite justified as our consumer economy demands a higher MPG rating, as our health care reforms discourage unnecessary procedures, and as the shareholders demand better management techniques.

Amory Lovins used a wonderful phrase when talking about corporations being forced through competition to adopt efficiency practices: "… they will either change their minds or their managers." Maybe the manager whose training didn't include sustainable management techniques might want to educate himself on such methods as a hedge against getting fired some day soon.

And considering how many managers had efficiency low on the priority list, how few executives paid attention to something as lower management as the electric bill, how few employees are even asked to turn the light off in an empty room, one must wonder how much of our economy is based upon waste? As we find our society can't afford the wasteful practices in the face of global competition and global warming, how much of the old investments in the industries of inefficiency will evaporate? What will happen to those who owe at least part of their paycheck to waste?

We should feel some sympathy for those who will be displaced by the sustainability trends. But we should try to give them "a hand up, not a handout" when that demographic is large enough to warrant government expenditures. Let's retrain those coal workers to do efficiency retrofits, install solar panels, or process biofuels. Fewer people will suffer less if we adopt the green practices sooner rather than later. 

We should be expect some real resistance to change from those that invested heavily in the inefficiency industries. They will be willing to devote a significant portion of their investment capital towards preventing the loss of the rest of their investments. But ultimately, our capitalist system will seduce them back towards the industries of growth and profit.

One of my favorite aspects of Amory Lovins' lecture series was the discovery that the fundamental drives of capitalism might happily coincide with the need to reduce civilization's carbon footprint. Corporations and capitalism might be our most effective tools for getting us out of the mess that corporations and capitalism got us into. After all, they are terraforming the Earth without even really trying. Imagine what they can accomplish when they are deliberate and motivated.

– Amory Lovins debate on ForaTV
– Amory Lovins 4th of 5 lectures on energy efficiency at Stanford.
Doug Rushkoff's interview about his new book, Life Inc.

Posted via email from Dan’s EcoGeekery

Global Warming Self Education Resources

Originally assembled for the Global Warming Solutions conference on 2/4/09. Any comments with additional resources may be added to the list as time allows.

Self Education Resources

Online Researching
~ Wikipedia – a communally edited encyclopedia that seems to be getting better the more people use it. Consider editing or adding an article yourself.  –  wikipedia.org
~ Google Scholar – offers searching of scholarly publications, letting the public get closer to the actual researchers and their data.  –  scholar.google.com
~ Social Bookmarking – use the wisdom of a community to quickly guide yourself to the best online resources.  —  delicious.com -or-  digg.com -or-  stumbleupon.com
~WikiHow – Want to know how to do … whatever, only sustainably? Search on this site for things like “sustainable” and “agriculture”.  —  www.wikihow.com
~ Do-It-Yourself Surveys – build your own free surveys
polldaddy.com -or-  freeonlinesurveys.com
~ Map of Flooding from Sea Level Rise – an interactive layer on top of Google Maps that will show what areas flood as sea levels rise, meter by meter.  —  flood.firetree.net
~ WattzOn – Calculate your carbon footprint using a tool that gets better the more people use it.  —  www.wattzon.com

~ iTunesU – free educational broadcasts hosted by Apple. Requires installing iTunes (also free). Searching is limited: you have to look up the host school, then subject. The Wood’s Energy Seminar series offered by Stanford is quite informative on global warming issues.  —  apple.com/itunes
One blogger made a guide to iTunesU:
~ Social Innovation Conversations – Offering lectures, debates and conference recordings on social change subjects such as sustainability, uplifting the developing nations, disaster prevention and recovery, sustainable venture capital, equality, non-profits and progressive business practices.
Some favorites speakers:  Amory Lovins (efficiency guru), Vinod Khosla (green venture capitalist), Bunker Roy (of the Barefoot College), William McDonough (sustainable design), Dean Kamen (Segway inventor), Natalie Portman (microlending),
~ NPR – Mostly a news source, National Public Radio can be a great way to keep up to date on recent global warming trends. One of their weekly programs, Living On Earth, is specific to the environment, with some great archives in audio and text formats. And Science Friday frequently discusses sustainability with working scientists.
www.loe.org – Living on Earth
www.sciencefriday.com – Science Friday
~ OCulture – University & College Podcasts – Podcasts and sometimes class materials from actual classes (7500) from schools like Berkeley, Stanford, Princeton, Oxford, MIT, CalTech, Yale, Harvard, UCSD, UCSF, UCD, etc. Try listening to a comprehensive energy talk at Princeton in ’06 by Steven Chu, the new Energy Secretary.
~ IT Conversations – One of the oldest podcast sources, they have a vast number of interviews, discussions and lectures. Available for immediate listening or download. Licensed under a Creative Commons license, so students and educators can sample and remix freely. Ranges from in-depth (college course level) to cursory (magazine article level).
Some favorites: Alex Steffen (edits World Changing), Michelle Kaufman (green pre-fab homes), Janine Benyus (biomimicry in design), Lawrence Lessig (of Creative Commons),  Howard Bloom (wrote Global Brain), Verna Allee (productive networks over corporations)
~ PopTech! – a conference series that hosts forward thinkers, artists, and musicians. Offers both podcasts and video clips. Saul Griffith’s energy speech may be the best ever.
Some favorites: Van Jones (of Green4All), Majora Carter (of Sustainable South Bronx),
Saul Griffith (WattzOn), Jessica Flannery (person-to-person microlending), Cameron Sinclair (Architecture for Humanity).
~ Stanford’s Entrepreneurship Corner – a lecture series by executives from successful companies, speaking on their respective industries and/or start-ups. Video and audio clips.
Favorites: Larry Bawden (new solar tech), Larry Brilliant (of Google’s philanthropy dept.), Paul Diamandis (Automotive X-Prize).
~ Commonwealth Club of California – A long-standing discussion and debate club that covers a wide range of subjects.
Favorites: Arnold Schwartzenagger (Sustainable California), Eric Schmidt (on Google’s green investing), Jeffery Sachs (Earth Institute).
~ ForaTV – A video source for some terrific lectures & panels on a variety of timely subjects, including a ‘green’ section.
Favorites: Dan Burden (walkable communities), Saul Griffith (on the future of energy), Steven Chu (US Secretary of Energy), Thomas Friedman (Author of The World is Flat & Hot, Flat & Crowded)

Newspapers & Magazines
~ San Francisco Chronicle Environment section  —  sfgate.com/news/environment
~ San Jose Mercury News –  www.mercurynews.com
~ L.A. Times/Environment Section – Current Environmental issues around the globe such as frequent articles on Global Warming. —

~ Environmental Design and Construction Magazine – As the name suggests, this magazine is about Global Warming solutions from the perspective of designing and building better residential and commercial buildings in order to reduce our Volatile Organic Compounds and our impact on our environment.  — www.edcmag.com

RSS Feeds
Most online information sources offer RSS feeds: once you subscribe, they will send you articles (in text, audio or video form) on specific subjects, such as climate change. The articles will show up as perodic emails, perhaps with files attached. Most email programs & web browsers, along with a few media players (like iTunes), will handle RSS feeds.

Learning through Games
~ Spore – a game that teaches evolution by letting players evolve their own species, from primordial ooze to spaceflight.   –   www.spore.com
~ A Force More Powerful – a game built to train non-violent protesters, contributed to by Ivan Marovic, one of the members of the student organization that helped overthrow the government of Slobodan Milosevic.   –   www.aforcemorepowerful.org

~ KQED, local public TV & radio – Recommended shows: the California report, TechNation, Quest.  —  www.kqed.org
~ Green For All – an Oakland non-profit trying to encourage green collar jobs. Founded by Van Jones. —  www.greenforall.org
~ US Green Building Council, Northern California Chapter – Research the LEED standards, get a LEED certification, attend green building gatherings, or network with the sustainable building industry.  —  www.usgbc-ncc.org
~ Silicon Valley Environmental Partnership –  www.svep.org
~ Sustainable Silicon Valley –  www.sustainablesiliconvalley.org
~ Santa Clara Valley Water DistrictThe Santa Clara Valley Water district has an entire section on Global warming on their website including the district’s perspectives and their plans for dealing with Global Warming Solutions.  They also have great links for further educating yourself on the solutions being looked at around the Santa Clara Valley and beyond.  ––  www.valleywater.org
~ Acterra – Located in Palo Alto, Acterra strives to provide answers and perform actions to help create a healthier planet.  One of the goals’ of Acterra is to bring people together to develop local solutions to Global Warming and related problems.  The website calendar is filled with events to help people find solutions to Global Warming.  There programs include training people to help others in their communities learn to led greener lives.  There informative website also has an environmental question and answer section, an Ask the Expert area and an environmental library.  —  www.acterra.org
~ PG&E’s Pacific Energy Center – offering free training classes in building efficiency, solar installation, lighting, HVAC, etc.  —  www.pge.com/pec/


~ NOAA – the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, which recently published an article in their news section saying that climate changes may not be reversible for a thousand years.  —  www.noaa.gov
Irreversible Climate Change article  —

~ Environmental Defense Fund – The Environmental Defense Fund states on their website that they are “dedicated to protecting the environmental rights of all people, including future generations. Among these rights are access to clean air and water, healthy and nourishing food, and flourishing ecosystems.”  They evaluate environmental problems based on science such as access to clean air and water, healthy and nourishing food, and flourishing ecosystems. They also promote solutions to the problems they evaluate.  Their website is filled with research and information related to global warming.  — www.edf.org
~ RMI – the Rocky Mountain Institute has been researching energy efficiency since the ’70s. They research and publish many reports & books on mixing sustainability with profitability.  —  www.rmi.org
~ ACEEE – the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy is a great resource for finding the most efficient appliances and the tax rebates they can get you. — www.aceee.org

William McDonough, achitect, author of Cradle to Cradle

A follow up on William McDonough, author of Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, whom I referred to in a prior post. Time magazine named him “Hero of the Planet“. I saw him speak at Stanford on Oct. 15th. He hit his main points from the earlier podcast, but with new detail and data. (Links below.) He discussed eco-efficiency within architecture, civic planning, general manufacturing processes

He states a goal we should conditionally adopt:

“Our goal is a delightfully diverse, safe, healthy and just world, with clean air, water, soil and power, economically, equitably, ecologically and elegantly enjoyed.”

I say conditionally, because we don’t know now what we will know in the future. We may need to modify this as time goes one. And overcommitment to any one philosophy is a bad idea. It could then be called an ‘-ism’, like socialism, capitalism, or ecologism. That last one’s from McDonough, who adds that an ‘-ism’ is fundamentally out of balance, leading society inevitably towards troubles. He advocates a balance, where society maintains an equilibrium between being ecological, economical and equitable.

During the Q&A phase, I asked who he would like to see as a Presidential adviser on the subjects of sustainability and energy, he suggested John Holdren, Heinz Professor of Environmental Policy at the Kennedy School of Government, and Director of the Woods Hole Research Center. He was also on an science advisory committee for President Clinton. My impression from casual research on Professor Holdren is that he would bring a balanced approach in advising for sustainablity while reminding everyone of the value of expertise. We need to undo and more the efforts of the Bush administration to devalue science in our culture. One of our dire needs right now is for government to get advice from true experts on how to best direct the limited resources of our declining economy towards climate change mitigation, prosperity and equality.

McDonough also said he would like to see substantial activity at the federal level aimed towards building and vehicular efficiency, sustainable energy, improving infrastructure, etc.

Scary Facts:
~ In the North Pacific Gyre, the large scale vortex flow in the North Pacific driven by the Coriolis effect, there is a ratio of plastic to plankton of 6 to 1.
~ 48% of the anthropogenic carbon since the industrial revolution has gone into the oceans. This has dampened the atmospheric global warming effects, but we are raising the acidity of seawater. Historically, the Ph has been between 8.8 and 8.2 according to the Ross Ice Shelf cores. We are currently at 8.06 and it could reach 7.9 by 2099. At 7.9 Ph, calcium carbonate goes into solution, meaning that none of the creatures that make shells will be able to do so. This will create a huge die-off at the bottom of the food chain, creating more die-offs further along the food chain. In other words, massive extinctions and a potential end to the fishing industry.

A few of the examples he sited during his talk:

~ Better Place: CEO Shai Agassi has a vision of oil independence for Isreal by employing plug-in electric vehicles with batteries that can be swapped at service stations for trips longer than a single charge. ~ Wiki article

~ Could we just lift farmlands up onto the roofs of buildings, so that the city integrates farms rather than displacing them? McDonough + Partners worked on a plan with the city of Liuzhou in China to implement his Eco-Efficiency standards into an upcoming expansion of the city. All the new apartment buildings will have rooftop gardens & solar panels, and the local sewage treatment plant will provide fertilizer and 20% of the local cooking gas.

~ For the green roof of the Gap HQ in Redwood City, they planted native grasses of the area, taking a first step in reversing the trend of developers reducing the native habitats of local birds and incects.

~ For the roof of a Ford truck plant in Michigan, they made a 10 acre green roof that captures the rainwater that would have had to be cleaned by a waste treatment plant. They saved money immediately, and their roof is consuming CO2 and providing habitat.

McDonough + Partners, architectural firm
MBDC, a green chemistry firm

Balancing Economy, Equity, and Ecology Through DesignOct. 15, 2008 – at Stanford, audio & some video
Speech at the Feb. 2005 TED talks, MP4 download
Cradle to Cradle Design, a talk on Feb 11, 2003 at Stanford, audio

The Credit Crisis, Insurance and Sprawl

As we face this financial crisis, we can watch for at least one positive effect from an environmental standpoint: less sprawl.

Both the lending mechanisms and the insurance industry have been hurt badly. This will result in more caution on the part of developers, their investors, and their customers. They will build fewer developments due to the comparative lack of available funds. And where they do build, they will find less demand from home buyers whose agenda coincides more and more with the sustainable development movement:

– High gas prices discourage too long a commute.
– The migration of population away from remote suburbs towards more dense urban centers will mean the jobs will follow.
– If there’s too much of a threat from floods, forest fires, hurricanes, or coastal erosion, then insurance will either be too expensive or totally unavailable.

So as the population moves from owning to renting, the units closer to jobs will be in higher demand. The developers will build denser neighborhoods with shorter commutes and less insurance risks from climate change effects. And the wise home-buyer will be seeking out more sustainable homes, giving the green developer a market advantage.

And with enough of a sustainability sentiment in government, we might even see additional market incentives through a carbon market or tax breaks for LEED homes.

There will be personal hardship for many, and I don’t mean to minimize or dismiss the impending struggles of those who will suffer (probably including myself). But I am pleased that some of the market mechanisms seem to be making the more sustainable choices coincide with financial wisdom.


We need a Climate Change Design Challenge Forum

Scary Idea: Technology learns 10,000 times faster than you do (according to John Smart of the Acceleration Studies Foundation).

For example, the silicon chip industry has remained consistent with Moore’s Law, doubling almost 30 times the concentration of transistors per chip per $1000 since its invention. That means that today’s chip is about 10 billion times better than it was 50 years ago.

Since we designed our technology to get us into this ever-increasing climate disaster, maybe we should start designing our technology to get us out of it. So how do we do that? We start by specifying what is needed. Industry calls such specifications design challenges. They usually seek them out on their own, but we need solutions faster. So let’s start collecting and voting on the best ideas for improving the situation.

There are a few advantages for the marketplace specifying what is needed. One is that the design challenges remain in the public space. Patents won’t keep other companies, governments and individuals from coming up with new, better solutions. And solutions can be low budget enough to be accessible to the poor and developing country populations.

Another advantage would be shifting of some of the market research out of the hands of the short-term profit oriented corporations and into the hands of the community. We can ask for solutions that won’t be huge sellers in Walmart in the next quarter. (See Chris Anderson’s notions on ‘the Long Tail’ and ‘Free’ –
http://itc.conversationsnetwork.org/shows/detail3328.html )

Our technology development cycles will seek to solve these design challenges, treating the victims of the unresolved issues as an unserved market eager for a solution in the form of a product or service. Why? Because these are ripe market opportunities. As Vinod Khosla, the founder of Sun Microsystems and Khosla Ventures said, “No one will pay you to solve a non-problem.” “Every big problem is a big opportunity.”
(video clip: http://edcorner.stanford.edu/authorMaterialInfo.html?mid=26)

A third advantage is that the community would do it’s own marketing for the best solutions. A voting process would show companies and inventors both what the solutions were the most demanded (what they should be working on) and which solutions were the best (how each solution performs). This would encourage industry, technologists, and Do-It-Yourself types to design better solutions faster.

Google has made something of a start along this process. Their “10ToThe100” contest (which just stopped accepting submissions, dammit!) is looking for the best ideas based upon how many would be helped. They are in a narrowing phase right now and will offer the 100 best ideas for public voting on Jan. 27th. So make sure you vote.

I missed the deadline, so I will post a few of my ideas over the next few days. And I make no apologies if they are a bit out of reach of current technology. Remember these are design challenges, and technology is a fast learner.

10-22-08   >>>Dan

References & Inspirations:

~ Clayton Christensen of Harvard Business School, Author of The Innovator’s Dilemma, The Innovator’s Solution, and Disrupting Class
Podcast: http://itc.conversationsnetwork.org/shows/detail135.html
Book purchase: The Innovator’s Dilemma: The Revolutionary Book that Will Change the Way You Do Business (Collins Business Essentials)
The Innovator’s Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth
Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns

~ John Smart of the Acceleration Studies Foundation
Site: http://www.accelerating.org/
Podcasts: http://itc.conversationsnetwork.org/shows/detail729.html

~ William McDonough of William McDonough + Partners, McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC), and author of Cradle to Cradle
Site: http://www.mcdonough.com/
Podcast: http://itc.conversationsnetwork.org/shows/detail3142.html
Book purchase: Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things

~Vinod Khosla, founder of Sun Microsystems and Khosla Ventures
video clip: http://edcorner.stanford.edu/authorMaterialInfo.html?mid=26

~ Chris Anderson, editor of Wired magazine, author of The Long Tail and Free (being published in ’09… for FREE!)
Book purchase: Long Tail, The, Revised and Updated Edition: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More